In The Kingdom Of Mists

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Now I am being stumbled on how to calculate the 2nd prize probability. My memories from school are not helping me enough to get my answer. I know that it should be between the two numbers I got there, however any calculations I am making end ups with a probability much higher than the first prize's. Could you please verify that my 1st and 3rd prize probabilities are well calculated and help me calculate the 2nd prize probability?

First, you have to draw 6 balls with exactly 5 balls matching 5 numbers from your set of 6 picked numbers. In total There are C 42,6 ways to draw six balls. How many winning combinations do we have? From your set of 6 balls you can pick five matching balls in C 6,5 ways. So the probability is:. That probability is:. For the seventh ball we have 36 choices and there is 1 winning ball between them. First 5 balls drawn match these 5 numbers. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered.

Calculate lottery's second prize using combination - lottery probability question. Ask Question. Asked 11 months ago. Active 5 months ago. Viewed 1k times. Draw : Draw 7 balls, with no repetition i. Results : If the first 6 balls drawn matches your own 6 numbers order doesn't matter : Jackpot. The Buchalter Cosmology Prize was conceived on the premise that there are still fundamental gaps in our understanding of cosmology and that currently-accepted paradigms such as inflation and dark energy are incomplete, and possibly even incorrect descriptions of our Universe.

What do second-place finishers win?

It was therefore created to support the development of new ideas or discoveries that have the potential to produce a breakthrough advance beyond our present understanding of the standard cosmological model and currently-accepted paradigms such as inflation and dark energy. The ultimate goal is to help spur the formulation of a broader cosmological theory that explains current observations, puts forth testable new predictions, and fundamentally advances our understanding of physics.

The Buchalter Cosmology Prize was instituted by Dr. Ari Buchalter. From a young age, Dr. Buchalter was drawn to science. This influence, coupled with exposure to the inspiring popular works of Carl Sagan, Isaac Asimov, and other ambassadors of science from the s and s, set him on the path to pursue astrophysics in his education and his early career. Buchalter received a BS in Physics from Stanford University in , a PhD in Astronomy from Columbia University in for work in theoretical astrophysics, and pursued postdoctoral research at Caltech from to , where he held the Lee A.

As a graduate student and postdoc, he published over a dozen papers on theoretical astrophysics in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings, on topics including large-scale structure formation, galaxy formation and evolution, gravitational lensing, tests of the cosmic expansion, and the cosmic microwave background radiation.

Buchalter put forth a theory which appears to explain a broad range of cosmological observations without the need for either inflation or dark energy, and which became the inspiration for encouraging others to pursue innovative and paradigm-challenging ideas through the creation of The Buchalter Cosmology Prize.

While at Caltech, Dr. With a growing interest in the business world, Dr. During his time at McKinsey, he found that quantitative methodologies from science could be applied in unique and powerful ways in the business world. In , Dr. From to , Dr.

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He currently serves as CEO of Intersection, a leading smart cities technology and media company, focused on transforming the urban experience by connecting the digital and physical worlds. Buchalter serves on the advisory boards for several technology startup companies, and is a frequent speaker and author on the topics of digital media, marketing strategy, and the application of quantitative techniques to solve business challenges. Seeing the power of innovative thinking and unconventional solutions in the business world, Dr.

Buchalter created The Buchalter Cosmology Prize to encourage and recognize ideas in cosmology that have the potential to fundamentally advance our thinking. We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. During his days as a graduate student and postdoc in astrophysics, Dr. Buchalter often struggled with commonly-accepted paradigms in cosmology, such as inflation and dark energy, which seemed to explain a phenomenon that was not understood by introducing a new idea or mechanism which itself was not understood — and which had no physical motivation to exist, other than to explain the original phenomenon.

In , three years after leaving science as a profession, Dr. Buchalter decided to revisit this line of thought.

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While some constants, such as the Rydberg, have historically been revealed to be comprised of other more fundamental quantities, other constants such as the speed of light c , the gravitational constant G , and Planck's constant h , are of seemingly primary significance.

Though ubiquitous throughout physics over decades or centuries, the underlying meaning and significance of these dimensional constants remains unclear: why are they present in the equations of physics, and why do they take on the values they do? If precedent suggests that constants might be viewed as placeholders for as yet undiscovered physics in our theories, then one of the challenges of physics is surely to reveal the physical meaning of these parameters. Indeed, it might be generally supposed that as physics progresses, fewer constants will be required as more fundamental theories are put forth, and that a true "theory of everything" might contain no such quantities, explaining nature from first principles alone.

Following a Machian line of reasoning, Dr. Many others had previously explored the notion that physical constants might vary over time, and moreover had formulated theories describing this variation that can address a range of cosmological problems. But these theories lacked a fundamental explanation of what the constants actually were and why they varied typically only exploring some ad hoc or heuristic assumption for the variation , and failed to address some observations such as apparent cosmic acceleration from Type Ia supernova light curves. Buchalter examined the dimensional properties of the constants, and postulated physically-motivated definitions for the so-called constants, relating c, G, and h respectively to the time variation of the linear scale factor, volume, and surface area of the Universe.

Together with a postulated conservation law and equations of motion, Dr. An apparent fit to the observations of Type Ia supernovae out to high redshift, without invoking a cosmological constant term. Potentially testable predictions for the time variation of the physical parameters, including decaying c and growing h that might be measured on human timescales. Consistency with all other investigated cosmological tests and terrestrial experimental constraints.

Some of the other intriguing features of the Varying Physical Parameter theory include: Re-derivation of cosmological scaling laws, which preserves most of the currently-accepted relations e. A generalized mass conservation law, whereby all species matter, radiation, etc. Equivalence between our universe and a black hole, as noted in other theories, and consistency with the Hawking Area Theorem for black holes with effectively no quantum evaporation.

Consistency with the notion of a cosmological holographic principle whereby information contained in an N-dimensional of space can be represented by a theory specified on the N-1 dimensional surface of that space. Consistency with the basic postulates of Special Relativity through the interpretation of a preferred time coordinate as the co-moving proper time in the cosmological frame, and predicted energy non-conservation within laboratory limits. Natural mechanisms relating massless particles propagation swept along geodesics at the speed of the cosmic expansion , gravity, and quantization to the dynamics of the cosmic expansion.

Excited by the findings and implications of this theory, Dr. Three prizes will be awarded for the Buchalter Cosmology Prize assuming at least as many qualifying submissions are received. All decisions of the judging panel, including eligibility of submissions in meeting qualification criteria and the determination of winners, will be final and no comments, reviews, or feedback will be provided.

Winners of the Buchalter Cosmology Prize will be announced in January and posted on the Announcements page. Submission instructions and qualifications for the Buchalter Cosmology Prize are as follows: Submissions must be original and innovative work in cosmology that puts forth either new theories, new observations, or new methods that have the potential to produce a breakthrough advance beyond our present understanding of the standard cosmological model and currently-accepted paradigms.

Potential examples of theoretical work might include innovative theories that can explain a wide range of cosmological observations from first principles without invoking the paradigms of inflation or dark energy, or conversely, new ideas that provide a fundamental physical motivation for inflation or dark energy other than merely as solutions to the horizon problem and apparent cosmic acceleration. Potential examples of observational or experimental work might include new observational data that credibly challenges currently-accepted models, observational tests supporting or refuting alternative cosmological theories e.

Submissions which merely validate current models but are not deemed to credibly and meaningfully extend or challenge our understanding will not be eligible. Submissions must first be entered into arxiv. Please be sure to obtain an arXiv reference number for your paper and include that in your submission. Submissions will only be considered from individuals who currently hold a PhD in Physics, Astrophysics, Astronomy, or a closely-related field, or are currently in an accredited graduate program pursuing a PhD degree in these fields.

Second Prize

Submitters may enter papers which they have authored, or may nominate the work of other authors. Submitters may enter up to three submissions for consideration in any annual cycle of the Prize. Authors making multiple submissions are heavily encouraged to select their strongest and most original work on a particular topic, and not enter multiple submissions relating to the same fundamental idea. Failing to do so could adversely impact consideration by the judges.

For the prize, submissions must be made on this website between October 1st, and September 30th, , and the original arXiv publication date of the paper being submitted must be no earlier than January 1, Resubmissions of papers entered in prior years will not be considered. Advisors for the Prize, as well as active panel Judges and the prior panel of Judges, are ineligible to submit papers or share in any portion of a prize. Submitted papers on which any of the prize Advisors, active Judges, or the prior panel of Judges are authors, will not be considered.

The Buchalter Cosmology Prize is pleased to announce the winners. The full press release can be found below. The annual prize, created by Dr.

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Ari Buchalter in , seeks to reward new ideas or discoveries that have the potential to produce a breakthrough advance in our understanding of the origin, structure, and evolution of the universe. Duncan Farrah of the University of Hawaii, Dr. Djordje Minic of Virginia Tech, Dr. Jonathan Braden of the University of Toronto, Dr. Matthew C. Hiranya V. Buchalter, a former astrophysicist turned business entrepreneur, created the prize based on his own research and experience in cosmology, and the belief that fundamental new discoveries in cosmology still lie ahead, but may require challenging and breaking some paradigms accepted in the field today.

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The prestigious judging panel for the prize is comprised of leading theoretical physicists noted for their work in cosmology, including Dr. Ruth Gregory of Durham University, Dr.

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Mark Trodden of the University of Pennsylvania. Advisory Board Members Dr. Active Judging Panel Dr. For donations via check, wire transfer, or other methods, please indicate your interest by sending an email using the form below, and additional information will be provided.

The Buchalter Cosmology Prize. Vision and Mission. About Dr. Back to top. A Novel Idea. Prize Details. First name.