Army to do as it saw fit with the , Japanese-Americans living on the West Coast: about 40, immigrants from Japan Issei and 70, of their American-born, American-educated children Nisei. By the end of March, Lt. John L. While Sittser documents protests from a variety of churches, Swedish Baptist publications were silent about the fate of the internees, many of whom were Christian. But the histories of the Nisei and of Bethel unexpectedly intersected in Over four thousand young men and women did just this, including three who began their studies at Bethel Institute in Sunday School class at the Poston concentration camp, ca.
He and his family, who learned of Pearl Harbor while attending church, were sent to Poston , the largest of the ten concentration camps. A high school senior when he arrived in southwestern Arizona, Yamashita remembered the staggering heat:. Those hot summer days and the things we learned! When given the chance to leave Poston and attend college, Yamashita chose to apply to Bethel. He arrived in the fall of He ended up staying in the Army for three decades, earning multiple graduate degrees along the way.
Yamashita testified in the s Congressional hearings on the internment program and helped found the Japanese American National Museum in Los Angeles. Paul Nagano in a oral history interview — Densho. After being moved to the Heart Mountain camp in Wyoming, Kiyoo Shimatsu was working at a local sheep ranch when he had the opportunity to apply to colleges in the Midwest.
Just a month later, The Clarion hinted at the injustice experienced by another minority population during what was purportedly a war for democracy. At the same time that Bethel welcomed three students of Japanese descent to campus, the college enrolled its first African-American student, Wichita native LeRoy Gardner.
While the record for Bethel suggests only passing, oblique critiques of the racism that marred the American war effort, it contains another silence that is notable for a different reason. Instead, Bethel and BGC publications at least occasionally spotlighted the participation of Swedish Baptist women working in military auxiliaries or war industries, though themes of domesticity never disappeared.
They have done much to maintain the moral and spiritual values of the home, and through increased employment they have helped in industries of various kinds. WAACs recruiting poster — U. The student paper duly reported not only the departure of male students recruited or drafted into military service, but that of young women who left Bethel for a variety of war-related reasons. He is calling for men and women with real backbone and broken hearts to serve Him in the fields that are white unto harvest. Many, since coming to Bethel, have answered this call and are preparing for His service.
For such Christians, the war simultaneously underscored the sin-sickness of the world and held open the possibility for winning souls, not just battles. London: Country Book Club, Niebuhr, Reinhold. Oldham, J. Christianity and the Race Problem. The Resurrection of Christendom. Real Life Is Meeting. Work in Modern Society. Life Is Commitment. Orwell, George. Sonia Orwell and Ian Angus, pp.
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A Cautious Patriotism: The American Churches and the Second World War
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John and Ian S. Markham, eds. Evans, Richard J. The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin, Fergusson, David A. In Andrew R. Fitzgerald, Timothy. Fletcher, Christine M. In Laurie M. Cassidy and Maureen H. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, Forrester, Duncan B. Indian Journal of Theology , , 11— Oxford: Clarendon Press, Forstater, Mathew. Review of Social Economy , , — Fox, Richard Wightman.
Reinhold Niebuhr: A Biography. New York: Pantheon, In Michael J. Lacey, ed. Freathy, Rob. Fullbrook, Kate. Oxford: Oxford University Press, ; online edn, September , www. Ganiel, Gladys. In John Carter Wood, ed. Gentile, Emilio. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions , : — Gordon, Peter E. In Darrin M. Important contributions to the field, based on impeccable research, put forward new interpretations of Cold War history that required the personal faith of key policymakers be taken into consideration in assessing crucial Cold War decisions.
Elizabeth Edwards Spalding argued that Cold War origins, early decisions, and policies could not be satisfactorily explained without reference to religion. Jonathan P. Another important contribution came from a global research project involving ecumenical churchmen and Cold War scholars, Christian World Community and the Cold War , edited by Julius Filo. Notably, religion was treated very differently in two major new collections of Cold War scholarship.
The Role of Protestant Military Chaplains in the Second World War – PACEM
The Cambridge History of the Cold War , a three-volume affair published in , reverted to the practice of addressing religion in conjunction with culture. As new scholars enter the field and new archival evidence is explored, the subject will yield even more insights into the Cold War era.
Given that the Cold War period remains one of bitterly contested interpretations, it is almost inevitable that the same will be true of religion and the Cold War. Given the nature of religion, perhaps even more so. Boff, Leonardo. London: SCM Press, Find this resource:. Chernus, Ira. Chumachenko, Tatiana A. Armonk, NY: M. Sharpe, Edwards, Mark. Basingstoke, U. Gallagher, Charles R. Vatican Secret Diplomacy. New York: Orbis, Haberski, Raymond, Jr. Jacobs, Seth. Intervention in Southeast Asia, — Kalkandjieva, Daniela. The Russian Orthodox Church, — London: Routledge, Keeley, Theresa.
Kent, Peter. Kirby, Dianne. Church, State and Propaganda. Hull, U. Edited by Klaus Larres. Oxford: Blackwell, Reports and Studies in Education, Humanities, and Theology. Joensuu: University of Eastern Finland, November Edited by Paul Mojzes. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, Leustean, L. Luukkanen, Arto. Helsinki: Studia Historica, Luxmoore, Jonathan, and Jolanta Babiuch.
London: Geoffrey Chapman, Mamdani, Mahmood. New York: Pantheon, McBrady, Jared. Michel, Patrick. Politics and Religion in Eastern Europe. Cambridge, U.
Miner, S. Peris, Daniel. Pollard, John. The Papacy in the Age of Totalitarianism, — Oxford: Oxford University Press, Steeves, Paul D. Teaneck, NJ: Holmes and Meier, Thomas, Merrilyn. Bern: Peter Lang, The process of designating communism a religion has a long provenance. Dies posited an irreconcilable conflict between Christ and Marx, stating the future of Western civilization necessitated the restoration of Christian influence in America. Thomas G. The concept of a united Christian Front against communism derived directly from Roman Catholicism.
- A Cautious Patriotism?!
- After 100 years, US Catholicism still bears the stamp of World War I.
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See Charles R. Dennis J. Dunn, ed. Robert A. Michael J. Ernest R. May, ed. Foreign Relations of the United States, — , V, — Foreign Relations of the United States, — , James Baughman, Henry R. Baughman, Henry R. Douglas T. Robert S. Dianne Kirby Basingstoke, U. Stathis N. Martin E. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, , Silk, Spiritual Politics , New York Herald Tribune , February 21, Caute, The Fellow-Travellers , 94— Herzog, Spiritual-Industrial Complex , 6.
Herzog, Spiritual-Industrial Complex. Herzog, Spiritual-Industrial Complex , Robert Moats Miller, Bishop G. Johnson, African-American Religions, — Sylvester A. Johnson and Steven P. Weitzman, eds. Hoover, Masters of Deceit , 88— Heather A. Pius XI, Divini Redemptoris.
Stevens, God-Fearing and Free , Laura Jane Gifford and Daniel K. Williams New York: Palgrave Macmillan, , — Ronald Reagan to John O. Kiron K. In — alone, the CIA spent about eight million dollars sustaining Solidarity as an underground movement,